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Troilus and Criseyde A New Translation (Oxford World's Classics)

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BkV:266 Gower, Strode: John Gower (c1325-1408) the poet a friend of Chaucer’s, and author of Confessio Amantis. Strode is probably Ralph Strode, Fellow of Merton College Oxford, who probably died in London in 1387. BkII:12 Thebes: They were listening to a reading from the Thebaid of Statius. The poet Publius Papinius Statius, born at Naples c 50AD, died there c 96AD. He lived at Rome in Vespasian’s and Domitian’s reigns, and dedicated his Thebaid to the latter, an epic about the War of the Seven against Thebes. His Achilleid, dealing with the Trojan War, was left unfinished. Act 1, scene 3 As the general, Agamemnon, and his councillors Nestor and Ulysses discuss the refusal of their principal warriors, Achilles and Ajax, to fight, Aeneas enters to deliver a challenge from Hector to single combat with any Greek. Ulysses and Nestor then scheme to deny Achilles the combat and give it to Ajax because, they say, Achilles is too proud already.

Meter may also play a part, though we should not be expecting a slavish adherence to the pattern of unstressed syllable, stressed syllable. It was possible to: Garrison, John, “One Mind, One Heart, One Purse: Integrating Friendship Traditions and the Case of Troilus and Criseyde,” in Medievalia et Humanistica 36 (2010), p.25–48.

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BkIII:90 Joined in Cancer: The relatively rare conjunction of the new Moon with Saturn and Jupiter in Cancer, occurred in the spring of 1385. Hornstein, Lillian Herlands (1948). "Petrarch's Laelius, Chaucer's Lollius?". Publications of the Modern Language Association of America. Modern Language Association. 63 (1): 64–84. doi: 10.2307/459407. JSTOR 459407.

BkIII:250: The Hymn to Love: This is a free rendering in rhyme royal of Boethius’s Consolation of Philosophy Book II metre 8. The couplet that concludes each verse is particularly important, and can act as a summary or climax for the preceding lines, though not always. Since the caesura in this poem is usually between the second and third stressed syllable, the second stress in the final line can be of marked importance and central to understanding the development of the stanza. Pay attention to the progress of ideas within a commentary passage and how the couplets work within that structure. Since the majority of sentences also conclude with the break between stanzas, you should consider the effect when sentences continue between stanzas. BkII:11 Janus: The Roman two-headed god of doorways and beginnings, equivalent to the Hindu elephant god Ganesh. The Janus mask is often depicted with one melancholy and one smiling face.BkIII:85 Tantalus: The king of Phrygia, son of Jupiter, father of Pelops and Niobe. He served his son Pelops to the gods at a banquet and was punished by eternal thirst in Hades. David Aers In Community, Gender and Individual Identity Masculine identity & the Courtly community: the self loving in TC Routledge 88

BkV:259 The Eighth Sphere: The sphere of the fixed stars above the orbits of the ‘planets’ (Greek for wanderers from their visually erratic positions relative to the fixed stars as viewed from Earth) in their seven spheres of the Ptolemaic scheme. (Earth, Moon, Mercury, Venus, Sun, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn) Troilus and Criseyde is usually considered to be a courtly romance, although the generic classification is an area of significant debate in most Middle English literature. It is part of the Matter of Rome cycle, a fact which Chaucer emphasizes. [3] Characters [ edit ] The great Trojan warrior Hector, Troilus’s brother, engages in single combat with the Greek Ajax, a fight that ends inconclusively. Hector and Troilus join the Greeks for a feast. Cressida, meanwhile, is seduced by Diomedes. Act 4, scene 2 As morning breaks after Troilus and Cressida’s night of lovemaking, Troilus, Pandarus, and Cressida each learn in turn that Cressida must leave Troy immediately. BkIV:60 Zeuxis: Chaucer calls him Zansis. Zeuxis was a Sicilian artist fl 468BC. His paintings were noted for their realism. The remark here attributed to him actually comes from Ovid’s Remedia Amoris (462).BkIII:199: Crassus and Midas: Midas King of Phrygia turned all he touched to gold. See Ovid’s Metamorphoses Book XI:85-145. Crassus was killed in the Roman war against the Parthians in 53BC. Orodes the Parthian King showed his contempt for his wealth by pouring molten gold into his dead mouth. BkV:94 Lucina: A Roman title of Juno as moon-goddess (strictly Juno Lucetia) and goddess of light and of childbirth. BkIII:88 Wade: Wace (?) the Anglo-Norman poet (c1100-1175), born in Jersey, made canon of Bayeux by Henry II of England. His major works were the Roman de Rou concerning the history of Normandy, and the Roman de Brut, a free translation of Geoffrey of Monmouth’s History of the Kings of Britain, dedicated to Eleanor of Aquitaine and containing material relating to the Arthurian legend. How does the couplet function in this stanza? Are the words that rhyme particularly significant? Are the words that are linked together in antithesis or complementary? Does one term modify the other? Does any deviation from the pattern of iambic pentameter have poetic effect? That is, does it in some way support or alter the meaning of the text? Act 4, scene 5 The Greek leaders, Menelaus and Ulysses excepted, kiss Cressida as Diomedes brings her to the Greek camp. After Hector and Ajax fight their bloodless and inconclusive single combat, Hector is introduced to the Greek leaders, including Achilles, who boasts that he will kill Hector. The Greeks invite Hector, joined by Troilus, to feast with them.

That night, Pandarus brings Troilus and Cressida together, and after they pledge to be forever true to one another, he leads them to a bedchamber to consummate their love. Meanwhile, Cressida's father, the treacherous Trojan priest Calchas, asks the Greek commanders to exchange a Trojan prisoner for his daughter, so that he may be reunited with her. The commanders agree, and the next morning—to Troilus and Cressida's dismay—the trade is made, and a Greek lord named Diomedes leads Cressida away from Troy. That afternoon, Ajax and Hector fight to a draw, and after Hector and Achilles exchange insults, Hector and Troilus feast with the Greeks under a flag of truce. As the camp goes to bed, Ulysses leads Troilus to the tent of Calchas, where the Trojan prince watches from hiding as Cressida agrees to become Diomedes's lover. BkIV:222 Simois: With the Scamander (Xanthus) one of the two great rivers of Troy. (See Homer’s Iliad)BkIII:180: Cytherea and Hymen: Cytherea is an epithet for Venus from Cythera, the Aegean island, sacred to Venus-Aphrodite who rose from the sea there. Hymen or Hymenaeus was the god of marriage. All upcoming public events are going ahead as planned and you can find more information on our events blog BkV:128 Manes: The Roman Manes or Di Parentes were Gods of the Underworld. They were the object of public and private cult, whose anger was placated by sacrifices. Their festivals were the Parentalia and the Feralia. BkII:121 Apollo: Son of Jupiter and Latona (Leto), brother of Diana (Artemis), born on Delos. God of the arts and poetry. Troilus and Criseyde is written in Rhyme Royal. Each verse has seven lines in a rough iambic pentamenter (unstressed syllable, stressed syllable x 5) as in ‘Have here a swerd and smyteth of myn hed!’ (26) and a rhyme scheme ababbcc.

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